Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Toxicology, Clinical Research Development Unit, Bu Ali Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of Infectious diseases, Bu Ali Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

3 Department of community Medicine, Clinical Research Development Unit, Bu Ali Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

10.30476/beat.2024.101078.1484

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and pattern of seizures and injuries induced by tramadol in patients admitted to the hospital.

Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study included 300 patients with alleged tramadol poisoning. Data on demographics, tramadol dosage and duration of abuse, co-existing illicit drug abuse, hospital stay length, and occurrence of seizures and trauma (type and site of injuries) were collected. The statistical analysis (the Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson's Chi-square, and Student's t-test) was conducted to compare the patients with and without seizures, trauma, and co-ingestion of illicit drugs. The analysis was carried out using SPSS software (version 21.0). A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The average patient age was 24.66±5.64 years, with males comprising 84.3% of the sample. The mean tramadol dose and duration of abuse were 1339.3±1310.2 mg and 2.43±1.35 years, respectively. Seizures were observed in 66% of patients, more frequently in males (69.6% vs. 46.8%; P=0.004). Trauma was reported in 23% of patients, representing 35.4% of seizure cases. All trauma patients had experienced seizures, with the head and neck being the most common injury sites (55.1%), typically presenting as abrasions (55.9%). The average hospital stay was 1.73±0.94 days, significantly longer for patients with seizures and trauma.

Conclusion: Trauma occurs in more than one-third of tramadol-induced seizures, highlighting the need to perform physical examinations to detect and localize injuries. Tramadol-associated traumas prolong hospitalization times and thus require prompt attention to prevent further injuries during pre-hospital handling and transferring to hospitals.

Keywords