Document Type : Original Article


1 Infectious Diseases Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran

2 Research Center for Trauma in Police Operation, Directorate of Health, Rescue and Treatment, Police Headquarter, Tehran, Iran

3 Prehospital and Hospital Emergency Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Neurosurgery, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Objective: To probe the factors associated with the outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients admitted
to emergency department (ED).
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that data gathering was performed via census methods, retrospectively.
During one year, all head injury’s patients who admitted to the ED of a tertiary center in Tehran, Iran were
included. Age, gender, mechanism of injury, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and injury severity score (ISS)
on admission, presence of extra-cranial injuries, findings of brain computed tomography (CT), duration of
hospitalization, and in hospital outcomes were recorded. Outcome’s assessment for survivors was performed
within a 6 months-period after discharge based on Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The variables and outcomes’
association were assessed.
Results: Totally, 506 patients were evaluated with the mean age of 36.77±21.1 years that 411 (81.2%) were men.
Follow up at 6-months post injury was feasible in 487 (96.2%) patients; 59 (11.7%) out of 506 eligible patients
died. Logistic regression analysis showed the association between assessed variables and patients’ outcome as
follows: age>65 years (OR: 12.21; p<0.001), GCS on admission <8 (OR: 62.99; p<0.001), presence of traumatic
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in brain CT scan (OR: 20.11; p=0.010), duration of hospitalization ≥ 5 days
(OR: 0.28; p=0.001).
Conclusion: The findings of the current study distinguished some variables that were associated with the
poor outcome of the patients with TBI. Therefore, TBI patients with any of these risk factors may need close
continues monitoring, early ICU admission, and some other special extra care in ED.