Objective: To investigate the effects of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring on mortality rate and functional outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods: This was historical cohort study being performed in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during a 4-year period (from 2006 to 2010) including those patients with severe TBI who had undergone care based on ICP monitoring (case group) or clinical evaluation (control group).Patients and controls were matched regarding the age, sex, initial GCS, initial pupils, and CT findings. The functional outcome, complications and mortality rate were recorded and compared between those who underwent ICP monitoring and those who did not.Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics. The rate of meningitis was significantly higher in those who underwent Ventriculostomy and ICP monitoring when compared to those who were managed without ICP monitoring. [14 (23.3%) vs. 7 (11.6%); p=0.041]. We found that the mortality rate (28.3% vs. 11.6%; p=0.172) as well as the frequency of persistent vegetative state (5.0% vs. 5.0%; p=0.998) were comparable between two study groups. However the frequency of severe disability was higher in control group compared to case group (26.7% vs. 15.0; p=0.046). In the same way, the frequency of good recovery (26.7% vs. 15.0; p=0.046) and favorable outcome (51.7% vs. 33.3%; p=0.021) was significantly higher in case group.Conclusion: Care based on ICP monitoring in patients with severe TBI was associated with increased frequency of good recovery and favorable outcome and decreased frequency of moderate disability. However higher meningitis rate was associated with Ventriculostomy and ICP monitoring.